Searching...

Popular Posts

Sunday, February 17, 2013

B.J. Habibie Biography - The third President of the Republic of Indonesia

B.J. HabibieBiographyany | President - Name: Prof. Dr.Ing. Dr. Sc.h.c. Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (BJ Habibie)
Born: Pare-Pare, June 25, 1936
Religion: Islam
Title: Third President (1998-1999)
Founder and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of The Habibie Center
Wife: dr. Hasri Ainun Habibie (Married May 12, 1962)
Children: Ilham Akbar and Kemal Thareq
Grandchildren: Four people
Father: Alwi Abdul Jalil Habibie
Mother: R.A. Tuti Marini Puspowardoyo
Number of Siblings: Children's Fourth of Eight Brothers

Education B.J. Habibie:
Bandung Institute of Technology, 1954
Rheinisch Westfälische Technische Hochscule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany, with a Diplom-Ingenieur degree, cum laude predicate at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Aircraft Design and Construction (1955-1960).
Rheinisch Westfälische Technische Hochscule (RWTH), Aachen, Germany, with a doctorate aircraft construction, the predicate Summa Cum laude, at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Aircraft Design and Construction (1960-1965).
Delivering his inaugural speech professor of aircraft construction in the Bandung Institute of Technology, in 1977.

Work B.J. Habibie:
Head of Research and Development of Structural Analysis in the company Hamburger Flugzeugbau Gmbh, Hamburg, Germany between the years 1965-1969.
Chief, Division of Methods and Technology on Commercial and Military Transport Aircraft MBB Gmbh, Hamburg and Munich between 1969-19973
Vice President and Director of Technology at MBB Gmbh, Hamburg and Munich in 1973-1978
Senior Advisor to the Board of Directors Technology MBB 1978.
Return to Indonesia and Pertamina's Advanced Technology Division lead, which is the forerunner of BPPT, years 1974-1978.
Government of Indonesia in the Field Advisor Technology Development and Aircraft, responsible directly to the President of Indonesia Suharto in 1974-1978.
State Minister for Research and Technology (Research and Technology) and Chairman of the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) in 1978-1998.
Vice President R.I. on 11 March 1998-21 May 1998.
May 21 President 1998-20 October 1999.

Organization:
Founder and Chairman of ICMI

Awards:
Theodore van Karman Award


The third President of the Republic of Indonesia, Jusuf Habibie Bacharuddin born in Pare-Pare, South Sulawesi, on June 25, 1936. He was the fourth child of eight siblings, spouse Alwi Abdul Jalil Habibie and RA. Tuti Marini Puspowardojo. Habibie, who is married to Hasri Ainun Habibie on May 12, 1962 was blessed with two sons namely Ilham Akbar and Thareq Kemal. Habibie passed his childhood with his brothers in Pare-Pare, South Sulawesi. The nature firmly adhered to the principle has been demonstrated Habibie since childhood. Habibie, who had a penchant for horseback riding and reading is known to be very smart when they occupied the elementary school, but he had lost his father, who died on 3 September 1950 due to a heart attack while he was praying Isha.

Shortly after his father died, his mother and then sell the house and car and moved to London with Habibie, after the death of his father, his mother drudge finance his children's lives, especially Habibie, as a willingness to learn Habibie later studying at Gouvernments Middlebare School. In high school, he began to look outstanding achievements, especially in the exact sciences lessons. Habibie a favorite figure in the school.

Because of his intelligence, Having graduated from high school in Bandung in 1954, he entered at the ITB (Bandung Institute of Technology), he did not until the end there because he got a scholarship from the Ministry of Education and Culture to continue his studies in Germany, because of the Bung Karno message about the importance of Air and Flight to Indonesia so he majored in Aerospace Engineering with specialization in aircraft construction Rhein Westfalen Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH) When I got to Germany, he was determined to sincerely dirantau and be successful, given the mother's efforts to finance college and life day-to-day. A few years later, in 1955 in Aachean, 99% of Indonesian students there are given a full scholarship. Only she who has a green passport or private from his friends another holiday season is not just a golden opportunity for him to be filled with exams and earn money to buy books. After the holidays, all activities except learning aside. In contrast to other friends, they, more often used the summer vacation time to work, gain experience and money without following the exam.

He received his Diploma Ing, from the Technische Hochschule, Germany in 1960 with honors Cumlaude (Perfect) with an average value of 9.5, with an engineering degree, he signed up to work in firm Talbot, a German railway industry. At that time the firm Talbot require a large volume wagon for transporting lightweight goods but the volume is huge. Talbot require 1000 wagon. Got a question like that, Habibie tried to apply the methods of construction to make aircraft wings which he applied to the wagon and finally succeeded.

After that he then continued his studies for a PhD at the Technische Hochschule Fuer Die Facultaet Maschinenwesen Aachean Habibie later married in 1962 in Hasri Ainun Habibie, which was then brought to Germany, his life harder, in the early morning Habibie sometimes had to walk quickly to the much work needs to save his life and then go home at night and study for college, his wife Lady Hasri Ainun Habibie had to queue up in the wash for the public to wash clothes economize needs of family life. In 1965 Dr Habibie earned. Summa cum laude rated Ingenieur (It perfectly) with an average of 10 of the Technische Hochschule Fuer Die Facultaet Maschinenwesen Aachean.

The formula is found by Habibie called "Habibie Factor" because it can count cracks or krack propagation on random atoms to the plane that he was dubbed as "Mr. Crack". In 1967, to honor Professor (Professor) at the Institute of Technology Bandung. from the same place in 1965. Genius and achievement is what drove Habibie recognized among international agencies, Gesselschaft fuer Luft und Raumfahrt (Institute of Aeronautics and Space) Germany, The Royal Aeronautical Society, London (UK), The Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (Sweden), The Academie Nationale de l'Air et de l'Espace (France) and The U.S.
Academy of Engineering (USA). Meanwhile prestigious award ever achieved Habibie them, Edward Warner Award and von Karman Award which is almost equivalent to the Nobel Prize. Domestically, Habibie received the highest award from the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Ganesh Bhakti Praja Manggala Kencana.

Steps Habibie much admired, full of controversy, a lot of admirers but not a few who did not agree with him. Each time, the winner of the prestigious Theodore van Karman Award, is back from the "habitat" of the Germans, he was always in the news. Habibie just a year studying at ITB Bandung, 10 years of college until my doctorate aircraft construction in Germany with honors Summa Cum laude. Then work in the aircraft industry leading MBB Gmbh Germany, prior to the call of President Soeharto to return to Indonesia.

In Indonesia, Habibie 20 years as Minister of State for Research and Technology / Chief BPPT, leading the 10 companies owned strategic industries, selected MPR became Vice President, and was sworn in by the Chief Justice to replace President Suharto became President of the Republic of Indonesia to the 3. Suharto handed the presidency to Habibie under Article 8 of the 1945 Constitution. Until finally forced Habibie also resigned due to referendum East Timor voted for independence. MPR his accountability speech was rejected. He went back to ordinary citizens, restored live migrated to Germany.

On May 22, 2010, Hasri Ainun Habibie, the wife of BJ Habibie, died at the Hospital Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Klinikum, Munich, Germany. He died on Saturday at 17.30 local time or 22:30 pm. Certainty of death Hasri Ainun Ali Mochtar Ngabalin certainty, a former member of Parliament appointed deputy BJ Habibie family. It's a very deep sorrow for the former Indonesian President Habibie and people who feel lost. For Habibie, Ainun is everything. Ainun are eyes to see her. For Ainun Habibie is everything, filling you in his life. But every story has a end, every dream has a limit.

In early December 2012, a movie called "Habibie and Ainun" was launched, the film is a true story about romance Lifting both as a teenager to become husband and wife, and when death separates them. The film is taken from the work of BJ Habibie's bestseller, this film worked on by two directors, namely Faozan Rizal and Hanung Bramantyo, with actor Reza Rahardian as Habibie and Justin Lestari as Ainun Habibie.

Most of his work in calculating and designing several aircraft manufacturing project:

* VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) DO-31 Transport Aircraft.
* Military Transport Aircraft Transall C-130.
* Hansa Jet 320 (Executive Aircraft).
* Airbus A-300 (for 300 people)
* CN - 235
* N-250
* And indirectly participated in the count and design:
· BO-105 helicopter.
· Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA).
· Some projects missiles and satellites.

Some Signs Service / honors:

* 1976 - 1998 Director of PT. Nusantara Aircraft Industry / IPTN.
* 1978 - 1998 Ministry of Research and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia.
* Chairman of the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology / BPPT
* 1978 - 1998 Director of PT. PAL Indonesia (Persero).
* 1978 - 1998 Chairman of the Industrial Development Authority Batam Island / Opdip Batam.
* 1980 - 1998 Chairman of the Defense and Security Industry Development (Presidential Decree. 40, 1980)
* 1983 - 1998 Director, PT Pindad (Limited).
* 1988 - 1998 Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees Strategic Industries.
* 1989 - 1998 Chairman of the Management Board Strategic Industries / BPIS.
* 1990 - 1998 Chairman of the Association of Muslim Scholars se-lndonesia/lCMI.
* 1993 Daily Presidium Coordinator, Board of Trustees of Golkar.
* March 10-May 20 1998 Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia
* May 21, 1998 - October 1999 the President of the Republic of Indonesia

Youth
B.J. Habibie

Prof. DR (HC). Ing. Dr. Sc. Mult. Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie otherwise known as BJ Habibie (73 years) is a man Pare-Pare (South Sulawesi) born June 25, 1936. Habibie became president of the 3rd Indonesia for 1.4 years and 2 months to be Vice President to-7. Habibie is a "blaster" between the Javanese [mother] with the Napier / Pare-Pare [father].

The days of small, Habibie has shown intelligence and high spirits on science and technology, particularly physics. For six months, he enrolled at the Mechanical Engineering Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), and continued to Rhenisch Wesfalische Tehnische Hochscule - Germany in 1955. With financed by his mother, R.A. Tuti Marini Puspowardoyo, young Habibie spent 10 years to complete the study of S-1 to S-3 in Aachen-Germany.

Unlike the average Indonesian students get scholarships abroad, college Habibie (especially S-1 and S-2) funded directly by the mother who does catering business and Indekost in London after her husband left to go (Habibie's father). Habibie mengeluti field of aircraft design and construction at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. During the five years of study in Germany Habibie finally earned his diploma Dilpom-Ingenenieur or technique (note: diploma engineering in Germany is generally equated with a degree Master/S2 in other countries) with summa cum laude.

Pak Habibie continued doctoral program after marrying his high school friend, Mrs. Hasri Ainun Besari in 1962. Together with his wife living in Germany, Habibie had to work to pay for tuition as well as household costs. Habibie explore the field of Aircraft Design and Construction. In 1965, Habibie S-3 completed his studies and received his PhD Ingenieur (Doctor of Engineering) with a GPA summa cum laude.

Career in the Industry

During his doctoral student, BJ Habibie had started working for his family and cost studies. After graduation, BJ Habibie worked at Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm MBB or Hamburg (1965-1969 as Head of Research and Development on Aircraft structure of the analysis, and then served as Head of the Division of Methods and Technology in industrial commercial and military aircraft in MBB (1969 - 1973). kebriliannya top performance and, four years later, he was believed to be the Vice President and Director of Technology at MBB period 1973-1978 and a Senior Penasihast technology to the Board of Directors MBB (1978). was he the only Asians who occupied number two position in the German aircraft company.

Before entering the age of 40 years, Habibie was very brilliant career, especially in the design and construction of aircraft. Habibie be a "jewel" in the country Germany and he got "an honor", both materially and intellectually by the Germans. While working in MBB Germany, Habibie contributed various research results and a number of theories for science and technology in the field of Thermodynamics, Construction and Aerodynamics. Several theoretical formulations known in the aircraft as "Habibie Factor", "Habibie Theorem" and "Habibie Method".

Return to Indonesia

B.J. Habibie
In 1968, BJ Habibie has invited a number of engineers to work on the German aircraft industry. About 40 engineers working in Indonesia finally on the recommendation of Mr Habibie MBB. This is done to prepare skill and experience (SDM) Indonesian engineers to someday be able to return to Indonesia and make products aerospace industry (and later maritime and terrestrial). And when (the late) President Soeharto send Ibnu Sutowo to persuade Germany to meet while Habibie returned to Indonesia, BJ Habibie immediately willing and leaving office, position and high prestige in Germany. This is done by BJ Habibie contribute to science and technology in the nation. In 1974 at the age of 38 years, BJ Habibie return to their homeland. And he appointed a government adviser (directly under the president) in the field of technology and high-tech aircraft until 1978. Despite of the years 1974-1978, Habibie was often home to go to Germany because they served as Vice President and Director of Technology at MBB.

Habibie began to really focus after he fired a high position in the German MBB Aircraft Company in 1978. And since then, from 1978 to 1997, he was appointed Minister of State for Research and Technology (Research and Technology) as well as serving as Chairman of the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT). Besides, Habibie was also appointed as Chairman of the National Research Council and various other positions.

CN-235 aircraft owned by Air Force works IPTN Spain

B.J. Habibie
As a Research and Technology, Habibie to implement its vision of bringing Indonesia into the high-tech industry. He pushed a leap in the development strategy of agrarian jump straight to the advanced industrial countries. His vision that instantly bring Indonesia into the industry gets opposition from various parties, both inside and outside the country who want a gradual development that started from the focus of investment in agriculture. However, Habibie has strong confidence will his vision, and there is a "quote" from the famous Habibie namely:

"I have some figures roomates compare the cost of one kilo of airplane Compared to one kilo of rice. One kilo of airplane costs thirty thousand U.S. dollars and one kilo of rice is seven cents. And if you want to pay for your one kilo of high-tech products with a kilo of rice, I do not think we have enough. "(Source: BBC: BJ Habibie Profile -1998.)

The sentence above is Habibie weapon to argue with his political opponents. Habibie would like to explain why the tech industry is very important. And he compares the prices of products from high-tech industries (high tech) and agricultural products. He showed data that the price of 1 kg aircraft is USD 30,000 and 1 kg of rice is 7 cents (USD 0.07). This means that 1 kg aircraft is almost equivalent to 450 tonnes of rice. So by making 1 piece of the plane with a mass of 10 tons, will be obtained rice 4.5 million tonnes of rice.

Pak Habibie mindset welcomed by Mr. Harto.Pres. Suharto was willing menggangarkan extra funds from the state budget for the development of technology projects Habibie. And in 1989, Suharto gave "power" over the Habibie Habibie by giving confidence to lead strategic industries such as Pindad, PAL, and PT IPTN.

Habibie became RI-1

B.J. Habibie
Materially, Habibie is well established when he worked at the German company MBB. In addition to well-established, Habibie has a very strategic position as well as the Senior Vice President advicer in German high-tech companies. So Habibie plunged into administration not because of the money or power per se, but rather the feeling of "thank you" to the state and people of Indonesia and also to his parents. Similar attitudes were shown by Kwik Kian Gie, ie, after a rich and prosperous at first, and Kwik retired from business and new to politics. Not vice versa, which is mostly done by the politicians today who become politicians in search of wealth / popularity so no wonder the mushrooming corruption.

Three years after his return to Indonesia, Habibie (age 41 years) received the title of Professor of Engineering from ITB. Over the past 20 years as the Minister, finally, on March 11, 1998, Habibie was elected as Vice President for-7 through the General Assembly. At the time that the economic crisis (financial crisis) hit the Asian region, including Indonesia. The rupiah plummeted from Rp 2,000 per U.S. dollar to Rp 12,000 per dollar's. Foreign debt maturities so that swell due to the depreciation of the rupiah. This diperbarah by private banks experiencing liquidity problems. Inflation soared above 50%, and unemployment started to happen everywhere.

At the same time, public outrage peaked with the new order system is loaded corruption, collusion, nepotism committed by Suharto cronies (officials, politicians, tycoons). Besides corruption, authoritarian Suharto government classified, which captures vocal activists and students.

Triggered shooting 4 students (Tragedies) on May 12, 1998, public outrage erupted, especially among activists and students in the New Order government. The movement of students, activists, and all the people at 12-14 May 1998 be a momentum change of the regime leader Mr Hato. And on May 21, 1998, President Suharto was forced to retire from the post of president which he held for about 32 years. During the 32 years that, authoritarianism and corruption grew sumbur loaded. During the 32 years of that, many truths are silenced. Starting from the turn of the Sukarno government (and exile Pres Sukarno), G30S-PKI, Supersemar, until Soeharto alleged conspiracy with the U.S. and its allies to dredge the natural resources by the people, the capitalists under the banner korpotokrasi (including the CIA, Duni Bank, IMF and conglomerate ).

Suharto's resignation, then his Deputy that BJ Habibie was appointed the third President under section 8 of the 1945 Constitution. However, his tenure as president lasted only 512 days. Although very short, the leadership of President Habibie of Indonesia was able to bring back from the brink of collapse due to the crisis. President Habibie successfully led the country out of the ultra-crisis situation, to implement the transition from otorian country into democracy. Successfully conducting the 1999 elections with multi parti (48 parties), successfully brought a change signifikn on stability, democratization and reform in Indonesia.

Habibie was the first president of Indonesia who received many awards, especially in the field of science and technology both domestically and abroad. His services in the field of aircraft technology to deliver he received an Honorary Doctorate degree (Doctor of Honoris Causa) from the University berbagaai world leading, among others, Cranfield Institute of Technology and Chungbuk University.

Special Notes BJ Habibie

B.J. Habibie
Habibie, Suharto Meet
"Carry only your job well, I pray that Allah SWT is always protected Habibie in performing the task. We will meet in the inner course, "answered Soeharto refused to meet with Habibie in a phone call on June 9, 1998.
(Habibie: Decisive Moments. Pages 293)

One of the common questions and many people do not know is how Habibie who lives on the island of Celebes could meet and familiar with Suharto who spent most of his life in Java?

Habibie first meeting with Suharto occurred in 1950 when Habibie was 14 years old. At that time, Suharto (Lieutenant Colonel) came to Napier in order to combat the insurgency / separatist in eastern Indonesia during the Sukarno government. Lieutenant Colonel Suharto lived opposite the family home Alwi Abdul Jalil Habibie. Since the mother is the Javanese Habibie, Suharto was then (Javanese) were received very well by the Habibie family. In fact, Suharto participate Habibie was present when my father died. In addition, Suharto was a "matchmaker" Habibie sister's wedding with men (soldiers) Lieutenant Colonel Suharto. Proximity-Habibie, Suharto continued despite Suharto had returned to Java after successfully combating the insurgency in eastern Indonesia.

After Habibie completed the study (about 10 years) and worked for almost 9 years (a total of 19 years in Germany), Habibie finally called back to their homeland by Soeharto. Although he was not awarded a scholarship to study in Germany from the government, Mr. Habibie still willing to go home to serve the country, especially the request comes from the fact Soeharto was 'a teacher' for Habibie. Habibie decided to return to Indonesia to give knowledge to the people of Indonesia, back to build high-tech industry in the archipelago.

Together Ibnu Sutowo, Habibie came back to Indonesia and met with President Soeharto on January 28, 1974. Habibie proposes the idea of ​​development as follows:

The idea of ​​building the aircraft industry nationwide as spearhead strategic industry
The idea of ​​establishing a Center for Research and Development of Science and Technology (Puspitek)
The idea of ​​the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Science of Technology (BPPT)
Habibie initial ideas feed into Soeharto and Habibie began to materialize when it served as a minister of the period 1978-1998.

However, the days of old, the relationship Habibie-Suharto apparently cracked. This is because the policies Habibie who allegedly "humiliating" Soeharto. The dismissal of Lt. Gen. (ret.) Prabowo from office because mobilize troops Kostrad Kostrad to Jakarta (and Brass Castle) without coordination boss is one policy that 'painful' pack Harto. Though Prabowo was Soeharto's favorite son who had been educated and nurtured into Suharto's successor. Examination as graft suspect Tommy Soeharto helped create 'hot' with BJ Habibe government policies, especially on several occasions in the media, BJ Habibie gave the green light to examine Soeharto. Though Tommy is the son of 'gold' Soeharto. And so many opposed to the Suharto government policy in the field of press, politics, the law until the unconditional release of political prisoners such as Sri Bintang Pamungkas Soeharto and Mukhtar Pakpahan.

Habibie: Mr. Technology Indonesia *

B.J. Habibie
B.J. Habibie
Habibie thoughts that "high-tech" got "heart" Harto pack. It could be said that Soeharto admire Habibie thinking, so his thoughts easily approved pak Harto. Soeharto agreed budgeted "extra funds" to develop ideas Habibie. Ease of access and proximity-Habibie, Suharto was considered by various parties as a form of collusion Habibie-Soeharto. Moreover, some parties do not agree with the mindset Habibie since the Suharto government willing to spend substantial funds for the development of high-tech industries such as the suggestion Habibie.

On 26 April 1976, Habibie established PT. Aircraft industry and became the first aircraft industry in South East Asia Region (note: Mr. meruapakan Nurtanio Aircraft Industry Pioneers Indonesia). Aircraft Industry renamed Nusantara Aircraft Industry (IPTN) on October 11, 1985, then direkstrurisasi, became Dirgantara Indonesia (PT DI) on Agustuts 2000. Istimewapun treatment experienced by other strategic industries such as PT PAL and PT PINDAD.

Since the establishment of the state statregis industries, each year Soeharto government has budgeted a relatively big budget to develop high-tech industries. And budget with very large numbers issued since 1989 where Habibie led strategic industries. However, Habibie has a logical reason to start the high-tech industry, would require a huge investment for a period of time. Results may not be felt immediately. Planting durian trees only took 10 years to harvest, especially high-tech industry. Therefore, over the years the style of strategic industry Habibie has yet to yield and consequently the country continues to finance the operating costs of the strategic industries is quite large.

Strategic industries ala Habibie (IPTN, Pindad, PAL) ultimately deliver results such as airplanes, helicopters, weapons, skills training and maintenance services (maintenance service) for aircraft engines, ammunition, ships, tanks, armored vehicles, rifles caliber , water cannons, RPP-M vehicles, combat vehicles and much more both for civilian and military purposes.

For international scale, BJ Habibie involved in various design and construction projects such as aircraft Fokker F 28, Transall C-130 (military transport), Hansa Jet 320 (executive jets), Air Bus A-300, DO-31 transport aircraft (aircraft technology dangn land and take off vertically), CN-235 and CN-250 (aircraft with the technology fly-by-wire). Moreover, Habibie indirectly involved in the project design calculations and BO-105 helicopter type, multi-function fighter aircraft, some missiles and satellites.

Because the mindset is, I consider him as the father of the technology Indonesia, liberated how much success a la Habibie strategic industries. Because we know that in 1992, the IMF instructed not to give Soeharto to IPTN operating funds, so that when it IPTN began entering a critical condition. This is because the plan makes satellite Habibie himself (note: the 1970's Indonesia is the country's 2nd largest satellite usage), the plane itself, as well as its own military equipment. It is supported by 40 0rang Indonesian experts who have work experience in the satellite manufacturer Hughes Americans will be drawn back to Indonesia to develop high-tech industry in Indonesia. If this is true, then this will threaten American technology industry (reducing the market share) as well as concerns high-tech capabilities and the Indonesian military.

Reference:
http://kolom-biografi.blogspot.com/2009/01/biografi-bj-habibie.html
http://nusantaranews.wordpress.com/2009/04/02/biografi-bj-habibie-bapak-teknologi-dan-demokrasi-indonesia/

5 comments:

  1. >>> agen poker <<<
    ************************************************
    >>> agen domino <<<
    ************************************************
    >>> bandar poker <<<
    ************************************************
    >>> bandar domino <<<
    ************************************************
    >>> bendera poker <<<
    ************************************************

    Benderapoker BANDAR POKER ONLINE DAN AGEN DOMINO QIU QIU TERPERCAYA DI INDONESIA
    Pin BBM : D1FB4EC6
    Tel/ WA : +855.962.071.913
    Livechat : www.benderapoker.com

    Raih kemenangan judi online anda bersama kami sekarang juga, dan rasakan sensasi permainan Player Vs Player 100% dan dapatkan jackpot yang sangat mudah hanya di Benderapoker .. :)

    ReplyDelete